Using indirection for faster message passing

Message passing always involves copying the payload from the sender into a static variable and then from the static variable into the receiver. Thus sending a large buffer, like a [u8; 128], as a message involves two expensive memcpys.

Indirection can minimize message passing overhead: instead of sending the buffer by value, one can send an owning pointer into the buffer.

One can use a global allocator to achieve indirection (alloc::Box, alloc::Rc, etc.), which requires using the nightly channel as of Rust v1.37.0, or one can use a statically allocated memory pool like heapless::Pool.

Here's an example where heapless::Pool is used to "box" buffers of 128 bytes.

fn main() {
//! examples/


use heapless::{
    pool::singleton::{Box, Pool},
use panic_semihosting as _;
use rtic::app;

// Declare a pool of 128-byte memory blocks
pool!(P: [u8; 128]);

#[app(device = lm3s6965, dispatchers = [SSI0, QEI0])]
mod app {
    use crate::{Box, Pool};
    use cortex_m_semihosting::{debug, hprintln};
    use lm3s6965::Interrupt;

    // Import the memory pool into scope
    use super::P;

    struct Shared {}

    struct Local {}

    #[init(local = [memory: [u8; 512] = [0; 512]])]
    fn init(cx: init::Context) -> (Shared, Local, init::Monotonics) {
        // Increase the capacity of the memory pool by ~4


        (Shared {}, Local {}, init::Monotonics())

    #[task(binds = I2C0, priority = 2)]
    fn i2c0(_: i2c0::Context) {
        // claim a memory block, initialize it and ..
        let x = P::alloc().unwrap().init([0u8; 128]);

        // .. send it to the `foo` task

        // send another block to the task `bar`
        bar::spawn(P::alloc().unwrap().init([0u8; 128]))

    fn foo(_: foo::Context, x: Box<P>) {
        hprintln!("foo({:?})", x.as_ptr()).unwrap();

        // explicitly return the block to the pool

        debug::exit(debug::EXIT_SUCCESS); // Exit QEMU simulator

    #[task(priority = 2)]
    fn bar(_: bar::Context, x: Box<P>) {
        hprintln!("bar({:?})", x.as_ptr()).unwrap();

        // this is done automatically so we can omit the call to `drop`
        // drop(x);
$ cargo run --target thumbv7m-none-eabi --example pool